Examining the challenges faced by head teachers on Social Justice Education in Dagoretti South Sub-County primary schools
Keywords:education, leadership, head teachers, social justice, socio-economic challenges
This study sought to examine challenges of social justice education (SJE) among primary school head teachers in Dagoretti South Sub-county. Consequently, the study sought to understand how head teachers translate these challenges to meaningful decisions. The study adopted a qualitative approach to data collection and analysis. A target population of 132 schools (113 private and 19 public) was considered. A purposive sampling, through key informant sampling method was employed and 12 participants were selected based on specific school variables of interest to the study. Data was collected using interviews after which it was coded, analysed and summarized in themes with the aid of MAXQDA 2020 software. The findings showed that primary school head teachers faced a myriad of challenges related to SJE. Though they addressed the emerging issues, they showed elements of insufficiency due to the complexities compounded in the matter. There is no direct, simple and clear panacea to SJE challenges. Eliminating SJE issues is an ongoing struggle that requires joint efforts of many stakeholders. The authors recommend education stakeholders to adopt a collective SJE solution bargain that will provide lasting solutions to the problem. Further, the authors recommend a longitudinal study to explore the factors that contribute to the achievement of SJE in schools.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) (2015). https://files.ascd.org/staticfiles/ascd/pdf/siteASCD/policy/ASCD-EI-Quality-Education-Statement.pdf
Bates, R. (2007). Educational administration and social justice. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 1(2), 141-156. doi:10.1177/1746197906064676.
Borg, W. R., & Gall, M. D. (1989). Educational research: An introduction. Longman.
Bossert, S., Dwyer, D., Rowan, B., & Lee, G. (1982). The instructional management role of the principal. Educational Administration Quarterly, 18, 34-64.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2), 77–101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.
Cedeño, L. F., Martinez-Arias, R., & Bueno, J. A. (2016). Implications of socioeconomic status on academic competence: A perspective for teachers. International Education Studies, 9(4), 257-267. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v9n4p257.
Day, C. (2007). What being a successful head teacher really means: An international perspective. Educational Leadership and Administration, 19, (Fall).
DeMatthews, D., & Mawhinney, H. (2015). Social justice leadership and inclusion: Exploring challenges in an urban district struggling to address inequities. Educational Administration Quarterly 50 (5), 844-881.
Garcia, E., & Elaine W. (2020). COVID-19 and student performance, equity, and U.S.
education policy: Lessons from pre-pandemic research to inform relief, recovery, and rebuilding. Economic Policy Institute. https://www.epi.org/publication/the-consequences-of-the-covid-19-pandemic-for-education-performance-and-equity-in-the-united-states-what-can-we-learn-from-pre-pandemic-research-to-inform-relief-recovery-and-rebuilding/
Glass, G. V., & Hopkins, K. D. (1984). Statistical Methods in Education and Psychology, (2nd
Greenfield, W. D. (1995). Toward a theory of school administration: The Centrality of leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 31(1), 61-85.
Guest, G., MacQueen, K. M., & Namey, E. E. (2012) Applied Thematic Analysis. Sage
Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks. http://www.sagepub.com/books/Book233379
Institute of Economic Affairs. (2017). Policy Debate on 5 Socio-economic Issues in Kenya:
Jenkins-Smith, H., Silva C. L., Gupta K., & Ripberger J. T. (2014). Belief system continuity and
change in policy advocacy coalitions: Using cultural theory to specify belief systems, coalitions, and sources of change. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/psj.12071
Johnson, Bob, L. Jr., & Janice R. F. (2000). Principals and the political economy of
en mental enactment. Educational Administration Quarterly. 36(2), 159-185. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X00362002viron.
Kabia, F., Mwalw’a, S., & Machyo, C. (2020). Mandatory school uniform policy
and students’ school attendance in Langata sub-county, Nairobi-Kenya. African Journal of Emerging Issues, 2(12), 18-39. https://ajoeijournals.org/sys/index.php/ajoei/article/view/144
Kearney, M.S., & Levine, P. B. (2020). Role Models, Mentors, and Media Influences. The Future
of Children, 30, 83-106.
Khechen, Mona. (2016). Social justice: concepts, principles, tools and challenges.
Krathwohl, D. R. (1993). Methods of educational and social science research: An integrated approach. Longman/Addison Wesley Longman.
Kromydas, T. (2017). Rethinking higher education and its relationship with social inequalities:
past knowledge, present state and future potential. Palgrave Commun 3, 1.
Lane, M. (2018). Ancient political philosophy. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2018 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2018/entries/ancient-political/>.
Lettinga, Doutje, & Lars van Troost. (2015). Can human rights bring social justice? Twelve
essays. Amnesty International Netherlands. https://www.amnesty.nl/content/uploads/2015/10/can_human_rights_bring_social_justice.pdf
Ministry of Education. (2019). Basic Education Statistical Booklet, 2019 https://www.education.go.ke/index.php/media-center/education-newsletters/file/867-basic-education-statistical-booklet-2019
Muigua, K. (2020). Towards inclusive and quality education as a tool for empowerment in
Ng, P.T. (2015). What is quality education? How can it be achieved? The perspectives of school
middle leaders in Singapore. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 27, 307-322.
OECD. (2012). Equity and quality in education: Supporting disadvantaged students and schools. OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264130852.en.
OECD. (2016). Innovating education and educating for innovation: the power of digital technologies and skills. OECD Publishing, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264265097
Participant A1. (2020 July 23). Personal communication [Personal interview].
Participant A2. (2020 July 24). Personal communication [Personal interview].
Participant A3. (2020 July 23). Personal communication [Personal interview].
Participant A4. (2020 July 26). Personal communication [Personal interview].
Participant A5. (2020 July 25). Personal communication [Personal interview].
Participant A6. (2020 July 24). Personal communication [Personal interview].
Participant A7. (2020 July 26). Personal communication [Personal interview].
Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research & evaluation methods: Integrating theory and
practice (4th ed.). Sage.
Patrinos, H. A., Velez, E., & Wang, C. Y. (2013). Framework for the reform of education systems
and planning for quality. https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-6701
Sergiovanni, T. (2001). Leadership: What’s in it for schools? Routledge.
Sorrells, K. (2015). Social justice. Key Concepts in Intercultural Dialogue, 68. https://centerforinterculturaldialogue.files.wordpress.com/2015/06/kc68-social-justice.pdf
Spillane, P. J., Reiser, B. J., & Reimer, T. (2002). Policy Implementation and Cognition: Reframing and Refocusing Implementation Research. Review of Educational Research 72(3), 387-431.
Stronks, Karien, Brigit T., Aart H., Umar I., and Sridhar V. (2018). Social justice and human
rights as a framework for addressing social determinants of health Final report of the Task group on Equity, Equality and Human Rights Review of social determinants of health and the health divide in the WHO European Region. WHO Regional Office for Europe. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/350401
Sturman, A. (1997). Social justice in education. The Australian Council of Educational Research.
Theoharis, G. (2007). Social justice educational leaders and resistance: Toward a theory of social justice leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43(2), (2007): 221-258. DOI:10.1177/0013161X06293717.
The Constitution of Kenya. (2010). Published by the National Council for Law Reporting with the Authority of the Attorney General. www. Kenyalaw.org
UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) and UNICEF. (2015). Fixing the broken promise of education for all: findings from the global initiative on out-of-school children. http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/fixing-broken-promise-efa-findings-global-initiative-oosc-education-2015-en.pdf
UNESCO. 2020. Towards inclusion in education: status, trends, and challenges: the UNESCO
Salamanca Statement 25 years on. UNESCO.
UNICEF. 2017. Inclusive education including children with disabilities in quality learning: What
needs to be done.
Wadsworth, E. M., TaliRaviv, C., Reinhard, B. Wolff, C. DeCarlo, S., & Lindsey, E. (2008). An indirect effects model of the association between poverty and child functioning: The role of children's poverty-related stress. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 13, 2-3, 156-185, : https://doi.org/10.1080/15325020701742185.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Neddy Mundia Nanjowe, Rosemary W. Mbogo, Niceta W. Ireri
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
This open-access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY-NC-SA) license.
You are free to:
Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.
Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
No additional restrictions: You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.