The legal frameworks for protecting the rights to image publication in Saudi and Sudanese journalism; expounding the views of stakeholders

Main Article Content

AISHA ELAMIN

Abstract

The protection of people' rights in the use of their photos in journalism publishing has been thoroughly examined in this research, with press freedom to access public data repository resources taken into account. Participants in the research were chosen from a cross-section of sectors in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. A total of 832 participants from a seven stakeholder groups in the two nations made up the sample. In Saudi Arabia, 56.85% (473) of the sample came from the six designated stakeholder groups (photojournalists, media editors, staff of governmental agencies, legal experts), whereas in Sudan, 43.15% (359) participated. Using relevant statistical tools, the study made key findings. According to the findings, approximately 50% of Saudi stakeholders and 86% Sudanese participants don't think that consent is required from people before their pictures are utilised in journalistic works. Over 81% of respondents from both Sudan and Saudi Arabia agree that protecting citizens' rights should be done in accordance with the legal framework of the country, but that journalists should be free to use digital resources in their publications. More than 80% of respondents agreed that photojournalists should put the public interest first while taking and publishing photos. It is thus concluded that state authorities must establish legal and ethical norms outlining the duties and obligations of photojournalists. Important considerations like privacy invasion, user permission, and public safety should all be baked into these rules.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
ELAMIN, A. (2023). The legal frameworks for protecting the rights to image publication in Saudi and Sudanese journalism; expounding the views of stakeholders. Research Journal in Advanced Humanities, 4(4). https://doi.org/10.58256/rjah.v4i4.1319
Section
Articles

How to Cite

ELAMIN, A. (2023). The legal frameworks for protecting the rights to image publication in Saudi and Sudanese journalism; expounding the views of stakeholders. Research Journal in Advanced Humanities, 4(4). https://doi.org/10.58256/rjah.v4i4.1319

References

Allen, A. L. (2003). Why journalists can't protect privacy. In Journalism and the debate over privacy (pp. 69-87). Routledge. Available at https://api.taylorfrancis.com/content/chapters/edit/download?identifierName=doi&identifierValue=10.4324/9781410608925-6&type=chapterpdf

Almania, A. (2017). Challenges confronting investigative journalism in Saudi Arabia. In A paper presented at the Global Investigative Journalism Conference (GIJC17). Available at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Azhagan-Chenganna-2/publication/329519591_Investigative_journalism_in_the_post-truth_era_Views_from_Mauritius/links/5fbfd5a1299bf104cf7beb10/Investigative-journalism-in-the-post-truth-era-Views-from-Mauritius.pdf#page=5

Alnajrani, H., Bajnaid, A., Elyas, T., & Masa’deh, R. E. (2018). Exploring the transitional era in Saudi Arabia journalism discourse and the path towards the right to freedom of expression. Modern Applied Science, 12(10), 1-12. Available at https://doi.org/10.5539/mas.v12n10p1

Coleman, R. (2011). Journalists' moral judgment about children: Do as I say, not as I do?. Journalism Practice, 5(3), 257-271. Available at https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2010.523588

Croteau, D., & Hoynes, W. (2013). Media/society: Industries, images, and audiences. Sage Publications. Available at https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=y0sXBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=Croteau,+D.,+%26+Hoynes,+W.+(2013).+Media/society:+Industries,+images,+and+audiences.+%09Sage+Publications.&ots=r8_m0KB3BX&sig=X94_5hiPxXt_tzpSroTZMROCoX8

Deibert, R. J. (2019). The road to digital unfreedom: Three painful truths about social media. Journal of Democracy, 30(1), 25-39. Available at https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/jnlodmcy30&div=6&id=&page=

Donovan, J., & Boyd, D. (2021). Stop the presses? Moving from strategic silence to strategic amplification in a networked media ecosystem. American Behavioral Scientist, 65(2), 333-350. Available at https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764219878229

Duffy, M. J. (2014). Arab media regulations: Identifying restraints on freedom of the press in the laws of six Arabian Peninsula countries. Berkeley J. Middle E. & Islamic L., 6, 1. Available at https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/bjme6&div=3&id=&page=

Georgiou, M., & Zaborowski, R. (2017). Media coverage of the “refugee crisis”: A cross-European perspective. Council of Europe. Available at https://policycommons.net/artifacts/421971/media-coverage-of-the-refugee-crisis/1393029/

Good, J., & Lowe, P. (2020). Understanding photojournalism. Routledge. Available at https://ualresearchonline.arts.ac.uk/id/eprint/12853/6/UP%20chapter%205%20copy.pdf

Grayson, L. (2015). Citizen photojournalism: How photographic practices of amateur photographers affect narrative functions of editorial photographs. Journalism Practice, 9(4), 568-579. Available at https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9781315211695-8/citizen-photojournalism-louise-grayson

Gregory, S. (2019). Cameras everywhere revisited: how digital technologies and social media aid and inhibit human rights documentation and advocacy. Journal of Human Rights Practice, 11(2), 373-392. Available at https://doi.org/10.1093/jhuman/huz022

Hinzo, A. M., & Clark, L. S. (2019). Digital survivance and Trickster humor: Exploring visual and digital Indigenous epistemologies in the# NoDAPL movement. Information, Communication & Society, 22(6), 791-807. Available at https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2019.1573911

Howie, E. (2018). Protecting the human right to freedom of expression in international law. International journal of speech-language pathology, 20(1), 12-15. Available at https://doi.org/10.1080/17549507.2018.1392612

House, F. (2017a). Freedom in the World 2017-Saudi Arabia. Available at https://www.ecoi.net/en/document/1407554.html

House, F. (2017b). Freedom of the Press 2017-South Sudan. Available at https://www.ecoi.net/en/document/1407554.html

Jackson, J. E. (2005). Sensationalism in the newsroom: Its yellow beginnings, the nineteenth century legal transformation, and the current seizure of the American press. Notre Dame JL Ethics & Pub. Pol'y, 19, 789. Available at https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/ndlep19&div=49&id=&page=

Johnson, B. G., Thomas, R. J., & Fuzy, J. P. (2021). Beyond journalism about journalism: Amicus briefs as meta-journalistic discourse. Journalism Practice, 15(7), 937-954. Available at https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2020.1758590

Kanter, A. S. (2009). The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its implications for the rights of elderly people under international law. Georgia State University Law Review, 25(3), 527. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2109819

Kennamer, D. (2005). What journalists and researchers have in common about ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 20(1), 77-89. Available at https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327728jmme2001_6

Lauren, P. G. (2011). The evolution of international human rights: Visions seen. University of Pennsylvania Press. Available at https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=efV5wvpUjDgC&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=Lauren,+P.+G.+(2011).+The+evolution+of+international+human+rights:+Visions+seen.+University+of+Pennsylvania+Press.&ots=2yCe1dzLXl&sig=m3FXODwjfW9XrO2sqSW8DzMcpEU

Mortensen, T. M. (2014). Blurry and Centered or Clear and Balanced? Citizen photojournalists and professional photojournalists' understanding of each other's visual values. Journalism Practice, 8(6), 704-725. Available at https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2014.892703

Newton, J. (2013). The burden of visual truth: The role of photojournalism in mediating reality. Routledge. Available at https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=z3JqJFO5qMUC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Newton,+J.+(2013).+The+burden+of+visual+truth:+The+role+of+photojournalism+in+mediating+reality.+Routledge.&ots=F8gJfxOKpS&sig=v_SquFXQFb_sa3ptX_TXuIj5pwc

Newton, J. H. (2020). Photojournalism ethics: A 21st-century primal dance of behavior, technology, and ideology. In The Routledge Handbook of Mass Media Ethics (pp. 115-132). Routledge. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15551399809363390

Newell, B. C. (2014). Crossing lenses: Policing's new visibility and the role of" smartphone journalism" as a form of freedom-preserving reciprocal surveillance. U. Ill. JL Tech. & Pol'y, 59. Available at https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/jltp2014&div=6&id=&page=

Pandir, M. (2020). Media portrayals of refugees and their effects on social conflict and social cohesion. PERCEPTIONS: Journal of International Affairs, 25(1), 99-120. Available at https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/perception/issue/56044/769639

Planska-Simeonova, K. (2019). Copyright Protection of Photographic Information in Compliance with the New Regulations Of The European Union. In EDULEARN19 Proceedings (pp. 5040-5046). IATED. Available at https://10.21125/edulearn.2019.1249

Relly, J. E., & González de Bustamante, C. (2014). Silencing Mexico: A study of influences on journalists in the Northern states. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 19(1), 108-131. Available at https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161213509285

Rothman, J. (2018). The Right of Publicity: Privacy Reimagined for a Public World. Harvard University Press. Available at https://www.zbw.eu/econis-archiv/bitstream/11159/376592/1/EBP08543633X_0.pdf

Simmons, B. A. (2009). Mobilizing for human rights: international law in domestic politics. Cambridge University Press. Available at https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=qmDxDMruTMMC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=Simmons,+B.+A.+(2009).+Mobilizing+for+human+rights:+international+law+in+domestic+politics.+Cambridge+University+Press.&ots=BaEpAn9aEB&sig=4DSK8VPC_AHN4m9H2kEz_MrSq60

Starr, P. (2004). The creation of the media: Political origins of modern communications (p. 153). New York: Basic Books. Available at https://www.eh.net/page/87/?s=US+S&P_500_Index%5Bb5918_com%5D

Stearns, J. (2013). Acts of journalism. Available at www.Freepressnet

Tait, G. B. (2017). “Really Social Photojournalism” and a Photojournalistic Changing of the Guard: Observations and Insights. Visual Communication Quarterly, 24(4), 230-242. Available at https://doi.org/10.1080/15551393.2017.1388726

Tilak, G. (2020). The study and importance of media ethics. Available at http://210.212.169.38/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/9647/The%20study%20and%20importance%20of%20media%20ethics.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Ward, S. J. (2019). Journalism ethics. In The handbook of journalism studies (pp. 307-323). Routledge. Available at https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9781315167497-20/journalism-ethics-stephen-ward

Yassin Hamid, Y. B., Mohammed, R., & Ahmad, M. K. (2018). The Influence of Less Press Freedom on the Newspaper Framing of the Issues of Corruption in Sudan. Available at https://repo.uum.edu.my/id/eprint/25315