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Ojwang') Wed, 14 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 No longer green: Female characters of African descent as sex workers in Chika Unigwe’s On Black Sisters’ Street (2009) and Amma Darko’s Beyond the Horizon (1995) <p>This article explores the potentialities of diaspora as conveniently structured to demonstrate the emancipatory potential of migration for women in Chika Unigwe’s <em>On</em> <em>Black Sisters’ Street</em> (2009) and Amma Darko’s <em>Beyond the Horizon </em>(1995)<em>. </em>Sex and sexual intercourse between men and women in the African societies that are fictionalised in these texts are not only an issue about morality, but also about how morality is governed and policed within these societies. While the societies in these texts hope to derive their integrity through women’s sexual purity, conflict arises when such communal integrity fails to recognise the individual circumstances of the female individuals upon whom such notions of purity rest. The question of what role sex and sexual practices play in upholding the honour of communities is a vexed one. While the societies that the texts explore here show less scrutiny on marital sex (regardless of whether it is consensual or forced), these societies occupy a judgmental pedestal on pre-marital and extra-marital sex. Harsher judgement, however, is reserved for individuals who engage in these practices for monetary gain. This textual analysis is informed by the postcolonial theory, as articulated by Homi Bhabha and his postulations on identity and ‘othering’.</p> Gloria Ajami Makokha, Mugo Muhia, Oluoch Obura Copyright (c) 2022 Gloria Ajami Makokha, Mugo Muhia, Oluoch Obura Tue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Ushuni as a method of sound production, performance practice and categorisation in the philosophical and intellectual foundation of Umaskandi <p>The focus of this article is to demonstrate and explain how employing linguistic apparatus, the epistemological and metaphysical world of <em>omaskandi </em>can be explored and understood. It does so by focusing on<em> ushuni</em> as the method of sound production, performance practice and categorisation method. The focus on <em>ushuni</em> demonstrates that the indigenous African languages Isizulu in particular, which plays a significant role as it dominates the conceptual apparatus beyond its ordinary communicative function, ought to be fundamental in rationalising and theorising about <em>umaskandi</em>. Isizulu language, therefore, should accordingly enable and guarantee access to <em>umaskandi</em>’s profound conceptual levels. The study has assumed the qualitative research paradigm as it offers an in-depth analysis of reality. Primarily, the investigation into the nature of <em>umaskandi</em> was conducted through fieldwork, and equally important was the consideration of the known history of the genre through earlier documentation. This article, therefore, attempts to unpack Isizulu indigenous music-making principles, practices, and contexts in which <em>umaskandi</em> exists. It is envisaged that it will be more beneficial to <em>umaskandi</em> genre, <em>omaskandi</em> and formal music education hence contributing to knowledge production about this musical phenomenon.</p> Mbuti Moloi, Geoff Mapaya Copyright (c) 2022 Mbuti Moloi, Geoff Mapaya Wed, 14 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Folk media: Existence, forms, uses and challenges in Mende indigenous communities of Southern Sierra Leone <p>The study examined the folk media: existence, forms, uses and challenges in the Mende indigenous communities of Southern Sierra Leone. A mixed methods research design of 120 participants was developed, selected from 3 communities with 40 participants in each community. The mixed approach used both quantitative and qualitative research designs in the study. The interviews were initially conducted using interview questions related to the existence of folk media, its use and the challenges it faced in the study area. Three focus group discussions were held in 3 communities, randomly selected on the outskirts of the Southern part of Sierra Leone. A quantitative research approach helped analyse simple statistical data collected by the researchers. The findings revealed that folk media exist in the Mende communities studied; and that the use of Mende folk media is fraught with major challenges. The findings also revealed that the use of Mende folk media is rare in indigenous Mende communities which is a major challenge in preserving the practices and their uses in the selected communities. The findings also showed that Mende folk media play an important role in disseminating social, religious, and cultural information, including being used in ceremonies such, as litigation, court hearings, singing and storytelling sessions, naming, weddings and political campaigns, and funerals. The findings also revealed that traditional Mende media are mainly used by the nominees of Paramount Chiefs, the community griots, the heads of the tribal and secret societies and volunteers.</p> Foday Yamba Philip Thulla, Ayuba Koroma, Samba Moriba, Ibrahim Mustapha Fofanah Copyright (c) 2022 Foday Yamba Philip Thulla Fri, 16 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000