Research Journal in Advanced Humanities 2022-12-23T06:57:48+00:00 Dr. Dickson Adom Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Research Journal in Advanced Humanities</em></strong> is a leading multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed open access journal, publishing research across the breadth of the arts and humanities. Part of <strong>Royallite Global</strong>, the journal has a mission to make research and knowledge accessible to all – authors therefore benefit from high visibility and readership for their work. The journal’s broad scope allows researchers to explore interconnected subject areas. The journal operates under the expert guidance of a team of Senior Editors, supported by an international Editorial Board. Each submission is evaluated on its own scholarly merit and research integrity, and our expert academic editors take an objective and constructive approach to peer review. Article-level metrics let the research speak for itself.</p> Ushuni as a method of sound production, performance practice and categorisation in the philosophical and intellectual foundation of Umaskandi 2022-08-16T21:25:10+00:00 Mbuti Moloi Geoff Mapaya <p>The focus of this article is to demonstrate and explain how employing linguistic apparatus, the epistemological and metaphysical world of <em>omaskandi </em>can be explored and understood. It does so by focusing on<em> ushuni</em> as the method of sound production, performance practice and categorisation method. The focus on <em>ushuni</em> demonstrates that the indigenous African languages Isizulu in particular, which plays a significant role as it dominates the conceptual apparatus beyond its ordinary communicative function, ought to be fundamental in rationalising and theorising about <em>umaskandi</em>. Isizulu language, therefore, should accordingly enable and guarantee access to <em>umaskandi</em>’s profound conceptual levels. The study has assumed the qualitative research paradigm as it offers an in-depth analysis of reality. Primarily, the investigation into the nature of <em>umaskandi</em> was conducted through fieldwork, and equally important was the consideration of the known history of the genre through earlier documentation. This article, therefore, attempts to unpack Isizulu indigenous music-making principles, practices, and contexts in which <em>umaskandi</em> exists. It is envisaged that it will be more beneficial to <em>umaskandi</em> genre, <em>omaskandi</em> and formal music education hence contributing to knowledge production about this musical phenomenon.</p> 2022-09-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mbuti Moloi, Geoff Mapaya Folk media: Existence, forms, uses and challenges in Mende indigenous communities of Southern Sierra Leone 2022-07-31T09:48:04+00:00 Foday Yamba Philip Thulla Ayuba Koroma Samba Moriba Ibrahim Mustapha Fofanah <p>The study examined the folk media: existence, forms, uses and challenges in the Mende indigenous communities of Southern Sierra Leone. A mixed methods research design of 120 participants was developed, selected from 3 communities with 40 participants in each community. The mixed approach used both quantitative and qualitative research designs in the study. The interviews were initially conducted using interview questions related to the existence of folk media, its use and the challenges it faced in the study area. Three focus group discussions were held in 3 communities, randomly selected on the outskirts of the Southern part of Sierra Leone. A quantitative research approach helped analyse simple statistical data collected by the researchers. The findings revealed that folk media exist in the Mende communities studied; and that the use of Mende folk media is fraught with major challenges. The findings also revealed that the use of Mende folk media is rare in indigenous Mende communities which is a major challenge in preserving the practices and their uses in the selected communities. The findings also showed that Mende folk media play an important role in disseminating social, religious, and cultural information, including being used in ceremonies such, as litigation, court hearings, singing and storytelling sessions, naming, weddings and political campaigns, and funerals. The findings also revealed that traditional Mende media are mainly used by the nominees of Paramount Chiefs, the community griots, the heads of the tribal and secret societies and volunteers.</p> 2022-09-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Foday Yamba Philip Thulla No longer green: Female characters of African descent as sex workers in Chika Unigwe’s On Black Sisters’ Street (2009) and Amma Darko’s Beyond the Horizon (1995) 2022-09-18T10:45:08+00:00 Gloria Ajami Makokha Mugo Muhia Oluoch Obura <p>This article explores the potentialities of diaspora as conveniently structured to demonstrate the emancipatory potential of migration for women in Chika Unigwe’s <em>On Black Sisters’ Street</em> (2009) and Amma Darko’s <em>Beyond the Horizon</em> (1995). Sex and sexual intercourse between men and women in the African societies that are fictionalised in these texts are not only an issue about morality, but also about how morality is governed and policed within these societies. While the societies in these texts hope to derive their integrity through women’s sexual purity, conflict arises when such communal integrity fails to recognise the individual circumstances of the female individuals upon whom such notions of purity rest. The question of what role sex and sexual practices play in upholding the honour of communities is a vexed one. While the societies that the texts explore here show less scrutiny on marital sex, regardless of whether it is consensual or forced, these societies occupy a judgmental pedestal on pre-marital and extra-marital sex. Harsher judgement, however, is reserved for individuals who engage in these practices for monetary gain. This textual analysis is informed by the postcolonial theory, as articulated by Homi Bhabha and his postulations on identity and ‘othering’.</p> 2022-09-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gloria Ajami Makokha, Mugo Muhia, Oluoch Obura Cultural practices resilience in the wake of COVID-19 among communities in Western Kenya 2022-10-11T12:46:14+00:00 Lucy Mandillah David Barasa Lydia Anyonje Janet Kassily Patricia Kariaga <p>This study provides first-hand information on the cultural practices during the COVID-19 pandemic among communities in Western Kenya. The study highlights the differentiated impact COVID-19 had on cultural practices and the central role played by communities in building the response and recovery to the global crisis. The study examined how cultural community practices were conducted in the wake of COVID-19 with a view to engineering such practices to fit in the new normal while preserving salient components of cultural traditions and values among the Luhya and Luo communities. A cross-sectional survey research design was employed. FGDs and interview schedules were used to elicit data from forty (40) respondents. Sixty percent (60%) of the respondents were from Kakamega, 25% Siaya and 15 % from Bungoma Counties. The study established that cultural practices such as greetings; cultural gatherings such as funerals; cultural bull fighting, Isukuti performances and circumcision took place during COVID-19, although at a very minimal level. Respondents confessed that COVID-19 protocols changed the way the above practices were conducted during COVID-19. It was further established that some abandoned cultural practices were re-introduced during the pandemic. Thus, indigenous culture was hit by the effects of COVID-19 infections, surveillance, as well as government and WHO COVID-19 protocol measures. The analysis and recommendations presented in this study seek to contribute to the design of COVID-19 response and recovery measures that are respectful of the rights of communities, support their cultural practices, livelihoods, economies and resilience. </p> 2022-10-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lucy Mandillah, David Barasa, Lydia Anyonje, Janet Kassily, Patricia Kariaga Attitudes and practices on induced abortion among Igembe Women in Meru County, Kenya 2022-11-04T15:35:37+00:00 Charity Kinya Koronya Charles Owuor Olungah George Odipo <p>This study sought to investigate beliefs about induced abortion in the Igembe community, Meru County. Purposively sampled individuals provided data via case narratives, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Transcripts were generated verbatim, and data was thematically analyzed in accordance with the objectives of the study. Inducing abortion was culturally acceptable and recognized in Igembe, particularly when an uncircumcised girl became pregnant or when an uncircumcised boy got a girl pregnant. Such abortions were obtained by men who had been specifically trained by elders for the purpose. Isolation of the pregnant girl/woman from family and peers, counselling in preparation for the abortion, cleansing of the girl and family after the procedure, use of herbs, rolling of banana stalks on the girl's/stomach, woman's and insertion of objects in the private parts were all practices used to induce abortion. According to the study, women were subjected to induced abortion in order to ensure adherence to social norms and reduce pre-marital sex. Women in Igembe continue to obtain abortions, and traditional approaches and legislation have been ineffective in eliminating the practice. Furthermore, religious beliefs, traditions, and socio-cultural norms continue to stigmatize and condemn abortion-seekers. Furthermore, the decision to have an abortion is motivated by both internal and external forces that are carefully considered by the concerned women.</p> 2022-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Charity Kinya Koronya, Charles Owuor Olungah, George Odipo Representation of disability in the media: A review of Kenyan newspaper reports of 2015-2016 2022-11-04T18:58:20+00:00 Peter W. Bukhala <p>Throughout history many societies have dealt poorly with disability. In Kenya, persons who have different types of disabling conditions have been excluded or isolated from mainstream society and denied opportunities due to a belief that they may be dangerous and not capable of participating in any meaningful activities. They are denied access to opportunities due to lack of knowledge and cultural beliefs. Even with Kenya having signed and ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and included these rights in the Constitution in 2010, many cases of injustices continue to pop up in the media. This study was a review of newspaper articles for the year 2015 and 2016 on representation of {dis}ability in two Kenyan newspapers - The Standard and the Daily Nation. In the study, existence of negative attitudes, violence, sexual harassment, limited financial support and weak policies were noted. Isolation from society leading to stigmatization was also noted to occur thus making it is hard for people living with a disability to learn daily living skills and integrate in society. Finally, implementation of policies that provide for access to opportunities by those with disabilities at County level of government continues to slow full implementation of policies on disability.</p> 2022-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Peter W. Bukhala Preferred Vocabulary Learning Strategies among Malaysian Students 2022-11-16T07:57:29+00:00 Mohd Zulfadli Mat Husin Nur Farah Asmaq Abdul Rahim Zuraina Ali Yaseen Alzeebaree Norsuhaily Abu Bakar <p>Vocabulary learning strategies (VLS) are essential to acquire and master English language skills. Previous research in the Malaysian context mainly focuses on students at the tertiary level, and a few on secondary school students. Thus, these studies have not thoroughly investigated the preferred VLS of secondary and tertiary ESL students. Examining the vocabulary-learning strategies preferred by ESL secondary and tertiary students in Malaysia is significant. VLS is important in determining Malaysian ESL students' English language communication performance. Quantitative convenience sampling methods were employed to determine the preferred VLS among Malaysian students. Data was gathered from 320 secondary school and tertiary colleges Malaysian ESL students using a revised Vocabulary Learning Strategies Questionnaires (VLSQ) version 6.4. Findings indicated that secondary and tertiary Malaysian students preferred metacognitive compared to other dimensions. Regarding gender, results showed significant differences between male and female students in meta-cognitive and cognitive VLS dimensions. In addition, secondary students preferred to use dictionaries, whilst tertiary students preferred using meta-cognitive regulation to learn new English vocabulary. These results show that students employed different VLSs in learning new vocabulary. Also, there is a significant difference between male and female students in VLS dimension preferences.</p> 2022-11-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mohd Zulfadli Mat Husin, Nur Farah Asmaq Abdul Rahim, Zuraina Ali, Yaseen Alzeebaree, Nursuhaily Abu Bakar Translanguaging in the analysis of narrative techniques and discourse styles in selected Philippine short novels 2022-12-02T08:17:56+00:00 Chester B. Esnara <p>This research undertook an innovative approach to the language-literature interface by means of adopting a modified model of translanguaging in the analysis of the narrative techniques and discourse styles of three selected Philippine short novels: Getting Better by Tara F. Sering, What Things Mean by Sophia N. Lee, and Salingkit by Cyan Abad-Jugo. Theories on language and thought and the modularity of the mind were reviewed in the reconfiguration of the translanguaging model assisted by CDA and the protocol of discourse analysis particularly in the gathering and treatment of data. Results of the study indicated the effectiveness of translanguaging strategies emanating from the aesthetic translanguaging space and the imaginative translanguaging instinct of the authors which helped in the appealing narrative techniques and creative discourse styles of the works. It is recommended that translanguaging as practice and theory be explored further in ESL/ELT/EMI and the disciplines to optimize its potentialities as a decolonizing stance as well as a relevant and helpful paradigm in resolving pressing language-related problems and challenges of the times.</p> 2022-12-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Chester B. Esnara A critique of baby making supermarts: Surrogacy clinics in Kishwar Desai’s Origins of Love (2012) 2022-12-06T20:59:57+00:00 Aparna Mehta Surbhi Saraswat Meenakshi F. Paul <p>This paper explores the exploitation of commercial surrogates at the hands of the various stakeholders and agents of the fertility industry in Kishwar Desai’s novel <em>Origins of Love</em> (2012). It begins with a brief description of the advances in the field of infertility treatment and the tailored options of the Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) for conceiving a child. It then traces the practice of surrogacy in mythology and explores how it is different from present day surrogacy. It further points out why ARTs is preferred over adoption by prospective parents and how this preference has led to the emergence of fertility clinics as the new baby supermarts, from where the parents can ‘buy’ egg, sperm and customised babies. The paper also throws light on how this trend of baby shopping makes fertility clinics operate akin to any other commercial industry and how in the novel Desai has depicted the inherent flaws of this phenomenon of baby shopping. It critically examines the rapid expansion of Reproductive Tourism due to transnational commercial gestational surrogacy and the huge popularity of India as a surrogacy hub, as depicted in Desai’s novel. The paper illustrates how surrogacy not only involves exploitation of women’s reproductive capacity but also encompasses physical, emotional, psychological and economic exploitation. The paper ends with a scrutiny of the blatant violation of medical ethics in the field of ARTs and the potentially dangerous long-term implications that these technological advancements can have on women’s health and the society at large.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aparna Mehta A study of Santals as children of nature in the light of Santal folktales 2022-12-23T06:57:48+00:00 Thadeus Hembrom <p>South Asian nations are home to the Santal tribe. Even though they are dispersed over several nations, most of the Santal are found in India and Bangladesh. The Santal people describe themselves largely as natural beings. This assertion has found support from some scholars who have analysed the Santal rituals and festivals. However, very few studies have tried to define the identity of the Santals from a literary perspective. Therefore, by examining their folktales, this article aims to demonstrate the idea that the Santal are children of nature. The study was guided by The National Folklore Theory, Cultural Functional Theory, and Theory of Reality. The qualitative research was based on a textual analysis of 27 Santal folktales. The rationale of this paper is that Santal folktales serve as a repository of knowledge about their customs, cultures and identities. From the study findings, it is clear that the Santals live in and through nature. They have such intimate relations with nature as one would have with a parent or sibling. They emulate the simplicity of nature in their lifestyle. Even the spirits they worship and revere are thought to reside in nature. Therefore, the Santal are born from nature and exist in mutually beneficial and shared spaces with other creatures in nature.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Thadeus Hembrom