A pragmatic study of incivility in Trump-Biden first American political debate

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Nesaem Mehdi Al-Aadili
Shaimaa Min’im Al-Jadooi


This study pragmatically investigates incivility in the first Trump-Biden American political debate. This topic is chosen for its significant negative impact on both individuals and society as a whole, particularly in the political arena. The current study endeavors to achieve the following aims:(1) Specifying the types of incivility used in the Trump-Biden first American political debate, (2) Identifying the prevailing functions of incivility in the chosen data, (3) Finding out the pragmatic strategies employed by the two rivals. To achieve these aims, the following procedures are adopted: (1) Presenting a literature review about the pragmatics of incivility, (2) Adopting an eclectic model to analyze the chosen data pragmatically, and (3) Analyzing the data both qualitatively and quantitatively to come up with some conclusions. The fundamental conclusion of the current study is that debaters in American political debates employ three types of incivility, namely, invectives and ridicule, hyperbole and distortion, and emotionality and histrionics. These three types are pragmatically realized through different pragmatic strategies, such as speech acts, non-observance of maxims, impoliteness strategies, and argumentative appeals.


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Al-Aadili, N. M., & Al-Jadooi, S. M. (2023). A pragmatic study of incivility in Trump-Biden first American political debate. Research Journal in Advanced Humanities, 4(4). https://doi.org/10.58256/rjah.v4i4.1271
Author Biographies

Nesaem Mehdi Al-Aadili, University of Babylon/ College of Education for Human Sciences /Department of English

Nasaem Al-Aadili is an Assistant Professor in the University of Babylon, Iraq. She holds a PhD from the same university. Her research interests are pragmatics and critical discourse analysis. She teaches undergraduates and MA students in the department of English in the University of Babylon. She has published various papers in local and international journals.

Shaimaa Min’im Al-Jadooi, Department of English, College of Education for Human Sciences, University of Babylon, Iraq

Shaimaa M. Al-Jadooi is a teacher of English and is currently pursuing a Master’s degree at Babylon University in Iraq. With significant expertise in education, she focuses on in teaching second language learners. Her primary research interests include the fields of pragmatics and contrastive linguistic studies.

How to Cite

Al-Aadili, N. M., & Al-Jadooi, S. M. (2023). A pragmatic study of incivility in Trump-Biden first American political debate. Research Journal in Advanced Humanities, 4(4). https://doi.org/10.58256/rjah.v4i4.1271


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