Is it always war? A study of conceptual metaphors used to refer to COVID-19 disease in the Okaz Newspaper of the United Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


  • R. N. Almarshedi Department of English Language, College of Arts and Literature, University of Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Pandemics, conceptual metaphors, entity, media, image schemas


Pandemics have been described using metaphors from ancient times. Such metaphors enable us comprehend disease, an abstract entity, in terms of entities that are concrete. Metaphors have been extensively used in varied media to explain the COVID-19 pandemic that has swept across the globe ever since it was discovered in 2019. This study undertakes a critical analysis of conceptual metaphors used to describe COVID-19 disease in the Okaz newspaper published in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study uses the Conceptual Integration theory by Fauconnier and Turner (2002) and Image Schema theory by Johnson (1987) to qualitatively analyze data. Steen’s (1999) Five-Step procedure aids in the identification of the metaphorical expressions. The study found out that the role conceptual metaphors play is critical. Moreover, war metaphors are inevitable and their usage is dictated by the issues that they address.


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How to Cite

Almarshedi, R. N. (2022). Is it always war? A study of conceptual metaphors used to refer to COVID-19 disease in the Okaz Newspaper of the United Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Linguistics and Foreign Languages, 3(1). Retrieved from