Sociolinguistic variables involved in making requests among the Anlos


Calvin Mawuli Attricki
Agbemor Kwami Akpeleasi


The purpose of this study is to investigate different sociolinguistic variables involved in making requests found among Anlo conversational participants in natural settings. The study employs qualitative research design. The population for this study is from three out of the thirty-six indigenous Anlo towns. In all, thirty-six respondents made up of children (aged between 9 and 14 years), youth (aged between 15 and 39 years) and the elderly (aged from 40 years and above) were selected from the three sites. The data collection instruments used for this study are observation, interview, role play and the use of discourse completion tests (D.C.Ts). From the discussions above, it can be seen that socio-linguistic variables of GRAPD are very necessary and are given much consideration when request is to be performed in Anlo. The analysis revealed that both the requester and the requestee consider the Gender, Rank, Age, Power or Distance that exists between them (the interlocutors). All these social variables affect request making in one way or the other among the Anlos. It is the social variables that the requester considers before making his or her request. The requestee also considers these social variables before considering granting or refusing the request.




How to Cite
Sociolinguistic variables involved in making requests among the Anlos. (2020). Journal of Linguistics and Foreign Languages, 1(2), 19-38.
Author Biographies

Calvin Mawuli Attricki, Languages Department, Peki College of Education, Ghana

Calvin Mawuli Attricki was trained as a teacher at E. P. Training College, Amedzofe, Ghana. He had his Bachelor of Education Degree in Ghanaian Languages (Ewe) from the University of Education, Winneba. He also had his Master of Education Degree in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) and Master of Philosophy Degree in Applied Linguistics from University of Education, Winneba. Being an ardent language teacher, he taught at Anglican Basic School, Penyi; Akatsi Sec. Tech, Akatsi and Zion College, Anloga.  Currently, he is a tutor at Peki College of Education, Peki. He also teaches at University of Cape Coast Distance Education Center, Ho and University of Education Distance Education Center, Sogakope. He served as the head of Languages Department and a member of the Governing Council of Peki College of Education, Peki. Because of his passion for reading and writing (Literacy), he is a National Core Trainer on the USAID Early Grade Reading Implementation Training Program.

Agbemor Kwami Akpeleasi, Department of Languages, Jasikan College of Education, Ghana

Agbemor Kwami Akpeleasi is a teacher trainer at Jasikan College of Education, Jasikan, Ghana. He graduated with teacher’s certificate “A” from Jasikan College of Education. He also had his Bachelor Degree in Ghanaian Language Studies (Ewe) and Master’s degree in Applied Linguistics from the University of Education, Winneba. Agbemor has taught for thirty years with eleven years of experience as a teacher educator. He serves as a head of the languages department. He is a member of the academic board and some committees in Jasikan College of Education. His areas of expertise are: Syntax, Morphology and Phonology. Agbemor has a number of publications to his credit.

How to Cite

Sociolinguistic variables involved in making requests among the Anlos. (2020). Journal of Linguistics and Foreign Languages, 1(2), 19-38.


Agyekum, K. (2005). Aspects of Persuasion in Akan Communication. RASK: International Journal of Language and Communication, 21, 63-96.

Agyekum, K. (2010). Akan verbal Taboos in the context of the Ethnography of Communication. Accra: Ghana University Press.

Austin, L. F. (1962). How to do things with words? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Blum-Kulka, S., &Olshtain, E. (1984). Requests and apologies: A cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns (CCSARP). Applied Linguistics, 5(3), 196-213.

Blum-Kulka, S., House, J., & Kasper, G. (1989). Cross-cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. Norwood, NJ: Alblex Publishing Corporation.

Bonvillain, N. (1993). Language, Culture and Communication: The meaning of

Capo, H. B. C. (1991). A comparative phonology of Gbe. Berlin: Walter de

Cohen, A. D. (1996). Studies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grice, H. Paul (1975). Logic and Conversation. In P. Cole & J. L. Morgan(Eds.), Speech Acts (pp. 41-58). New York: Academic Press.

Gumperz, J. J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

House, J. and G. Kasper. (1987). “Interlanguage pragmatics: Requesting in a foreign language”. Perspectives on Language and Performance, Vol. 2. Eds. W. Lörscher

Kasper, G. (1997). Can pragmatic competence be taught? Retrieved November 2008, from the World Wide Web:

Kasper, G., & Blum-Kulka, S. (Eds.). (1993). Interlanguage pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

King, K., A. & Silver, R. E. (1993). Sticking points: Effects of instruction on NNS refusal strategies. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, 9, 47-82.

Lin, Yu-leng. (2011). Test of Analytic Bias in Native Mandarin and Native Southern Min Speakers. In Yun Xiao Liang Tao and Hooi ling Soh (Eds., Current issues in Chinese Linguistics. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Nwoye, O. (1992). Linguistic Politeness and Socio-Cultural Variation of the Notion of Face. Journal of Pragmatics 18, 309-28.

Obeng, S. G. (1997). Communicational Strategies: Persuasion and Politeness in Akan Judicial Discourse. Text,17(1), 25-51.

Obeng, S. G. (1997). Indirectness in Pronominal Usage in Akan Discourse. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 16(2):201-21.

Obeng, S. G. (1999). Request in Akan Discourse. Anthropological Linguistics 412, 230 - 251

Searle, J. R. (1969). Speech acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Searle, J. R. (1975). Indirect speech acts. In P. Cole & J. L. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and semantics, Vol. 3: Speech Acts (pp. 59-82). New York, Seminar Press.

Sifianou, M. (1992). Politeness Phenomena in England and Greece: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. New York: Clarendon Press.

Wolfson, N. and Manes, J. (1980). The compliment as social strategy. Papers in Linguistics. International Journal of Human Communication. 13. 391-410.