Research Journal in Modern Languages and Literatures <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Research Journal in Modern Languages and Literatures</strong> is a leading interdisciplinary peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research works across the breadths of Literatures and Languages. The journal has a mission to make research and knowledge accessible to all; authors, therefore, benefit from high visibility and readership for their work. The journal's broad aims and scope allow researchers to explore interconnected subject areas. Each article on this particular issue has been evaluated on its own scholarly merit and research integrity, and our expert academic editors take an objective and constructive approach to peer review.&nbsp;</p> en-US <p class="copyright-statement">This open-access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.</p> <p class="licensing"><strong>You are free to:</strong> </p> <p class="licensing"><strong>Share</strong> — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.</p> <p class="licensing"><strong>Adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. </p> <p class="licensing"><strong>Under the following terms:</strong> Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. </p> <p class="licensing"><strong>No additional restrictions:</strong> You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</p> (Amos O. Ojwang') (AMOS OJWANG) Thu, 01 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Aspectual forms in Lutsotso <p>This paper analyses the inflectional category of aspect in Lutsotso, a dialect of the Oluluhya macro-language. Using descriptive approach, the paper establishes that there are a number of inflectional morphemes affixed on the verb root to express, e.g. person, number, tense, aspect and mood. Among these affixes, tense and aspect categories interact largely, hence, it is difficult to study one category without referring to the other. While tense and aspect are profoundly connected in Lutsotso, this paper only identifies and describes the inflectional form of aspect. Generally, aspect in Lutsotso relates to the grammatical viewpoints such as the perfective, imperfective and iterative forms. This includes the temporal properties of situations and the situation types as well. Aspect just like other grammatical categories such as tense, mood, person, agreement and number are important in understanding the grammar of Lutsotso. &nbsp;</p> Hellen Odera, David Barasa Copyright (c) 2021 Hellen Odera, David Barasa Mon, 05 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Falsafa ya jazanda katika methali za jamii ya Wanyore: Mtazamo wa kisemantiki <p>Makala hii inatokana na utafiti ambao uliazimia kutathmini falsafa ya jazanda katika methali za Wanyore kwa mtazamo wa kisemantiki. Madhumuni ya makala yenyewe yanahusu falsafa ya msamaha na maridhiano ya kijamii, unyumba na maisha katika ndoa na uadui katika methali za Wanyore.&nbsp; Nadharia ya Uhusiano ya Sperber na Wilson (2004 &amp; 1986) ndiyo iliyoongozwa makala hii.&nbsp; Nadharia hii ilitumiwa kufafanulia maana za methali katika jamii ya Wanyore. Data ilikusanywa kutoka kwa Wanyore wanaoishi katika kaunti ndogo ya Emuhaya na Luanda katika kaunti ya Vihiga. Makala hii ilitumia njia za uchanganuzi matini na mahojiano kukusanya data. Vifaa vilivyotumiwa vilikuwa ratiba ya usaili na tepurekoda. Data ilichanganuliwa kimaelezo kwa kunukuu methali za Kinyore, kisha zikatafsiriwa na kufasiriwa katika Kiswahili hatimaye falsafa ya jazanda ya msamaha na maridhiano ya kijamii na uadui ikaainishwa na kufafanuliwa. Matokeo ya kazi hii yatachangia kueleweka kwa falsafa ya jazanda ya msamaha na maridhiano miongoni mwa wanajamii. Pia, yatakuwa mchango na marejeleo kwa watafiti katika uwanja wa methali.&nbsp;</p> Henry Andele, Susan Choge, Fred Wanjala Copyright (c) 2021 Henry Andele, Susan Choge, Fred Wanjala Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The role of autobiographies and biographies in the promotion of Kiswahili prose <p>Despite the fact that Kiswahili prose has grown and made great strides as well as demonstrating high artistic levels through stylistic experiments as well developments in content maturity; some of its sub-genres especially the biographies and autobiographies seem to be overlooked by both writers and literary critics and thus lag behind. This shows that some literary sub-genres in Kiswahili prose artistically expanded beyond what is evidenced in the biographies and autobiographies thus proving that Kiswahili prose works have not developed at the same standards in style, content and numbers of published works compared to other literary genres in the language. Given this situation which seems to paralyze the biographies and autobiographies, this article evaluates and explains the role of these writings in the promotion of Kiswahili literature and language. The paper takes a theoretical perspective due to the fact that it evaluates Kiswahili literary sub-genres from a historical perspective. This is to say that it used critical analytical methods to examine the biographies and autobiographies in Kiswahili as well as to question and evaluate the prevailing situation. The importance of biographies and autobiographies as literary expressions especially in promoting life-long learning and a reading culture among adults is emphasized. Finally, this paper recommends that deliberate strategies for composing and teaching Kiswahili biographies and autobiographies be put in place in Kenya in order to broaden their scope.</p> John M'Raiji Copyright (c) 2021 John M'Raiji Mon, 05 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Rhetorical questions as an off-record politeness strategy in language use among the Bukusu <p>The ability of the addressee to decode a message from the speaker is key in any communicative event. The speaker therefore has the responsibility to ensure that his message is understood, logical and informing (Nikitina 2011). This is made easier through direct use of language where the lexical meaning; whether spoken or written convey the intended meaning. However, in the off-record politeness strategy there is indirect use of language. The lexical meaning is not the speaker’s intended meaning. Therefore, the certainty of the intended meaning is not assured. The message is received and decoded according to the addressee’s perspective within the context. Although the speaker is meant to choose a strategy that will communicate to the addressee without ambiguity, the case is not so in the use of rhetorical questions. Instead of seeking to find knowledge the rhetorical questions provide information which may be understood by referring to context cues. This paper has discussed rhetorical questions as an off- record politeness strategy with the aim of determining the context and reasons for their use in communication. The research focused on language use amongst users of Bukusu language through a case study of <em>Manguliechi’s </em>oration. The study was guided by the Politeness theory of Brown and Levinson (1987). Purposive sampling was used to sample <em>Manguliechi</em>, whose language use formed the basis of this study. Data was collected by use of content analysis and discourse methods. Data analysis was done through interpretive method and the results reported by description. The research outcomes are expected to play a vital role in highlighting and explaining the context and reasons for the use of rhetoric questions as an off-record strategy in language. The report will also contribute literature in critical discourse analysis of African languages.</p> Eunice N. Neyole, Frida A. Miruka, Deborah N. Amukowa Copyright (c) 2021 Eunice N. Neyole, Frida A. Miruka, Deborah N. Amukowa Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000