Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies 2021-03-05T08:28:09+00:00 Amos O. Ojwang' Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">Part of Royallite Global, <strong>Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies</strong> is a leading interdisciplinary peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research works across the breadths of Literatures and Cultural Studies. The journal has a mission to make research and knowledge accessible to all; authors, therefore, benefit from high visibility and readership for their work. The journal's broad aims and scope allow researchers to explore interconnected subject areas. Each article on this particular issue has been evaluated on its own scholarly merit and research integrity, and our expert academic editors take an objective and constructive approach to peer review.&nbsp;</p> Reflexivity, Localisation and Globalisation in Dugda Pawar's Baluta 2021-03-05T08:28:09+00:00 Maurice Simbili Mwichuli <p>Dugda Daya Pawar is touted as among the first Dalit-Mahar, a person of the ‘untouchables’ low castes in India, to tell his (their) story in an autobiography. <em>Baluta</em> was the vehicle that he used. The novel, first published in Marathi in 1978, was a bold and courageous step that acted as a harbinger to other Dalit stories that opened up the virtually ‘untouchable’ world to the global scene. More stories and books on and by the Dalits followed soon after, among them <em>Joothan</em> (1997) by Om Prakash Valmiki and <em>Outcaste</em> (2003) by Narendra Jadhav. Although the writings have been central in the fight against the discriminative and humiliating traditions and customs in India, there is more that they actually bring to light and even more that is not said or told. Pawar himself captures this assertion in <em>Baluta</em>: ‘The reflection of a man in the mirror does not know the whole story of the man it is reflecting’ (Pawar, 2015:4). What is the whole story of ‘the man’ being reflected in<em> Baluta</em>? How does it reflect the reality locally and globally on their plight? Did the writing or movement achieve anything? This paper seeks to interrogate the local and global dimensions of change and reflexivity as captured in the plight and lives of the Dalit Mahars with reference to the representations in Dugda Daya Pawar’s <em>Baluta</em>.</p> Copyright (c) Decolonising neo-colonialism: Resistance in Mbuh’s The Oracle of Tears (2006) 2021-02-15T13:34:29+00:00 Gilda Nicheng Forbang-Looh <p>This article investigates the ways in which Mbuh Tennu Mbuh’s poems contribute to the on-going debate on resistance to oppression (in)direct Western hegemonies. European colonialism, having led to new, indirect forms of oppression in African states, is perceived as a continuing practice which obliges the oppressed to permanently rework their resistance strategies. This paper is premised on the assumption that Mbuh’s selected poems in <em>The</em> <em>Oracle of Tears</em> advocate a practice of resistance to neo-colonialism that consists in three important phases: re-visiting the colonial past, observing its present displays and overtly condemning its perpetuation. Postcolonialism is used as theoretical base for this study because it’s raison d’être is the dismantling of overt and subtle forms of Western domination. This paper arrives at the conclusion that the problems of post-independence Africa in general and Cameroon in particular are better understood when read as effects of the whole colonial syndrome. Such reading also reiterates the call for a united African resistance against (in) direct Western hegemony.</p> 2021-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gilda Nicheng Forbang-Looh A gerontological imagination of age and ageing in Burundian proverbs: From a lexical to a contextual analysis 2021-02-12T06:34:06+00:00 Audace Mbonyingingo Epimaque Nshimirimana <p>It is now widely accepted that ‘‘age’’ and ‘‘ageing’’ are cultural concepts that are open to questions. The thinking encouraged by critical gerontology has been crucially important in provoking questions about the complexities of later life, age and ageing. Similarly, the interrogation of stories of age and ageing via literary approaches and as found in proverbs are increasingly recognized as an important source of knowledge for mining the intricacies of later life. This article represents an attempt to examine some of the ways in which Burundians conceive of later life through Kirundi proverbs. The critical question here is “how do Burundians, even within the same age or sex, conceive or represent old age?” To answer this question, a number of proverbs about both males and females have been examined to decorticate the underpinnings in old age and ageing. This analysis was enhanced by reference to critical gerontology, which among other tenets, postulates that “aging [is] a multifaceted change” where “aging involves biological changes in individuals at varying rates. The transitions associated with growing older are probably related to chronological age, and the process of aging itself is multidimensional in nature”<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a>. The objective is thus to examine, through carefully selected proverbs, the representation of old age in Burundian proverbs and secondly, to offer a linguistic analysis of the ways in which the meanings have been packaged. The article concludes with suggestions concerning the uses that perspectives from critical gerontology could have for these discourses and some of the questions it might help scholars of ageing ask about proverbs of ‘‘age’’.</p> 2021-02-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Audace Mbonyingingo, Epimaque Nshimirimana UTILIZATION OF FACEBOOK AS AN ONLINE ALTERNATIVE LEARNING TOOL IN DEVELOPING ENGLISH COMMUNICATION SKILLS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC 2021-01-23T16:15:43+00:00 Randymax Bulaquit <p>Abstract</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>UTILIZATION OF FACEBOOK AS AN ONLINE ALTERNATIVE LEARNING TOOL IN DEVELOPING ENGLISH COMMUNICATION SKILLS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Randymax M. Bulaquit, </strong><strong>LPT, D.Min., Ph.D</strong></p> <p><strong></strong></p> <p><strong>09475199906/0975558390</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords:<strong> Social Media, Communication Skills, Facebook, English as a Second Language</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Most studies show that students use Facebook as a powerful tool for social interaction, and English language learning purposes. The study aimed to assess and present empirical data on the students’ perceptions on the acceptability and usage level of Facebook as a supplemental tool in developing English communication skills and to identify possible variables that could initiate programs on how student maximize study time in connection with Facebook’s usage.</p> <p>Results of the study showed that majority of the respondents used Facebook daily in learning reading, writing, listening and speaking in English. Respondents have moderately agreed that Facebook can be used as a supplemental tool in developing communication skills in reading, writing, and listening but slightly agreed in speaking. There was no significant difference in the extent of usage and the results of the communication skills test in reading, writing, listening and speaking. The weak positive correlation between perception and performance in writing and reading skills implies that a better perception correlates to a slight increase in performance.</p> <p>Correlation between perception and performance in listening was positively very weak while performance in writing and reading was positively weak. However, correlation between perception and performance in speaking was negatively weak. This implies that a better perception correlates to a very slight decrease in performance.</p> <p>Lastly, majority of the respondents have encountered problems in using Facebook such as inappropriateness of comments, pictures, or video posted on Facebook, slow internet connection outside and within the university and lack of security and validity of information.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) The Crisis of Post-colonial Intellectual Thought and Knowledge Production: Examining Jared Angira’s African Revolutionary Egalitarianism 2021-01-21T15:38:14+00:00 Joyce Wanjiku Wachira Nicholas Kamau Goro Stephen Muthoka Mutie <p>This paper critiques Jared Angira’s poetry, and the authorial ideology his poetry thematically and aesthetically testifies to with a view to interrogating the ‘Marxist’ label scholars have attached to the poet and his work. Although justification has been adduced for the prevailing perspectives on Angira’s poetic output and apparent “Marxist” ideological orientation, they are also limited in their subconscious reinforcement of the traditional white-supremacist negative image-branding of the continent in terms of deficiency, non-presence, incompleteness, and overall, inferiority. On these grounds, and in contributing to the spirit of decolonising the enterprise of knowledge generation and consumption in the Global South, the paper interprets these views as theoretically misleading and ideologically incorrect. It adopts the contrary position that Angira is an African Revolutionary Egalitarian not a Marxist. Though African Revolutionary Egalitarianism, a term we coin to try and apprehend the ideology we read in his poetry, has some Marxist inclinations, in its contexture, it is not Marxism. The paper will base its argument on Jared Angira’s poetry as the primary data. Secondary data will also be in the form of critical evaluations on the primary texts. The paper will also rely on secondary data situated around the general context of scholarship in contemporary African ideological paradigms and knowledge systems. Existing knowledge on the broad range of historical factors, experiences and contours which shape Angira’s worldview, personality and writing will also constitute an essential category of secondary data. Employing New Historicism and Stylistics Criticism as the theoretical reading strategies, and textual analysis and historical context study as the methodology, the paper attempts to pave the way for the appreciation of African Revolutionary Egalitarianism as Angira's uniquely African contribution to the enterprise of endogenous knowledge production and the intellectual armoury of African political ideas.</p> 2021-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Joyce Wanjiku Wachira, Nicholas Kamau Goro, Stephen Muthoka Mutie Who is a father? Deconstructing the machismo of fatherhood in Chigozie Obioma’s The Fishermen (2015) 2021-01-13T11:25:35+00:00 Faith Ben-Daniels <p>This paper deconstructs the patriarchal institution of fatherhood that tends to present fatherhood as a machismo that the family must rely on for its sustenance and survival. The paper argues that the patriarchal ideology of fatherhood which is backed by culture obstructs the psyche of women and thereby affect their ability to rise to the challenge of being sole care givers for their children when the circumstance or situation calls for it, and by their actions affect the children who are at the receiving end of parenting. The study refers to Jacques Derrida’s theory of deconstruction to show how the conflicting forces within the traditional concept of fatherhood serve to dissipate its seeming definiteness and undermine its presupposed priority in a model of parenthood. The study builds its argument by relying on the aspect of the deconstruction theory which posits that appearance is more relevant than essence. (Stanford, 2006) This study is conducted using Chigozie Obioma’s novel, <em>The Fishermen</em>, as the main reference text. However, references are made to other texts where necessary.</p> 2021-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Faith Ben-Daniels Construction of AbaGusii cultural image and identity in Christopher Monyoncho's popular poetry: The Prevalent Theme of Marriage Blues 2020-12-24T09:52:41+00:00 Alfred Nyamwange Evans Nyamwaka Eucabeth Mongare Augustine Agwuele <p>Construction of cultural image and identity in society has been a major focus in academia in recent times. However, most of the studies done in the area target stylistics, imagery, and group artists as opposed to individual artists. The objective of this study was to critically uncover how cultural image and identity in prevalent themes are constructed through the oral and popular poetry of Monyoncho. This iconic AbaGusii Benga music artist plied his trade among the AbaGusii, a Western Kenya Bantu community for over four decades.&nbsp; The AbaGusii like all African communities had suffered colonial disruptions and Westernization that upset their social cultural systems. The study employed two theories, namely, the ethnopoetics theory to account for step-by-step translations from EkeGusii to English and dialogism to interrogate the several voices from the dynamic to conservative within the spectrum of patriarchal, pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial periods and the thematic concerns of that given era. A descriptive research design was employed, and in terms of their theoretical implications. The study would be of interest to a wide range of researchers, linguists, anthropologists, and students concerned with theory, practice, and development of language, social, political, historical, literature and cultural studies.</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Alfred Nyamwange, Evans Nyamwaka, Eucabeth Mongare, Augustine Agwuele The politics of the popular: Definitions and uses of African popular fiction 2020-12-24T08:39:27+00:00 Spes Nibafasha <p>This paper is a contribution to the discourse around the politics and the polemics of ‘the popular’. It focuses on the definitions and uses of African popular fiction. The problematic in the definition of ‘African popular fiction’ starts from the difficulty in the definition of African popular culture itself which the fiction in question is supposed to reflect or influence (Barber, 1997). This paper does not take the term ‘popular’ as a received notion but as a contested notion because there is politics behind it. ‘Popular fiction’ is a term originating from outside Africa in the West while in Africa there is a problem of distinction between what is popular and what is not popular. The transpositions from Western to African popular fiction require adjustments beyond substituting black for white or beyond bringing the proletariat-bourgeois dichotomy because contexts are totally different. Popular fiction acquires new characteristics and uses when transposed to the African local and when transposed to a different local within Africa. African writers re-interpret or extend the boundaries of this genre in order to make it do new intellectual work and address questions of social and political power. This form is conscripted for new ends and is made to address emergent issues of social contradiction in Africa. It is itself an institution of social critical analysis.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-12-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Spes Nibafasha A stylistics analysis of Maya Angelou’s “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings” and “Equality” 2020-11-02T14:31:09+00:00 Emmerencia Beh Sih <p>Language is a very important tool in literature, as literature cannot be studied without language, be it written or spoken. Language is used differently by different writers; therefore, it is important to analyse how language is used to create an effect and as such, bring out meaning. Stylistics is the study of text from it literary and linguistics perspective. It studies the feature and functions of both spoken and written texts ‒ it is a practical way of understanding the meaning of a given text. Writers have diverse ways of communicating idea, and using literary and linguistic categories to communicate ideas in a text is simply doing a stylistic analysis of the text. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the poems, “I know Why the Caged Bird Sings” and “Equality” by Maya Angelou, so as to know how language brings out the stylistic effects of a writer, and contributes in generating meaning. The stylistics tool explore in this study are: graphology, syntax, semantics, lexico-semantics, phonology, morphology, foregrounding, contrast, imagery, personification, metaphor, simile etc. This study has as findings that language is the essential part of any work of arts, and the achievement of any work centers on how the artist uses language to communicate meaning.</p> 2020-12-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Emmerencia Beh Sih SOCIOLINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF MEANING IN KOFI AWOONOR’S “THIS EARTH, MY BROTHER…” AND “COMES THE VOYAGER AT LAST’ 2020-10-23T13:03:44+00:00 Priscilla Queen Kparevzua <p>Sociolinguistics concerns with how language use is governed by factors such as age, class, gender, race, and the like. It is used to investigate the form and use of language in different cultures, and to what extent the development of language has been influenced by cultural environment. Studies have investigated language forms in markets, schools and different aspects of societies but we are bereft of how this concept is represented in interactions of characters in literary texts. This study thus, does a Sociolinguistic Investigation of Kofi Awoonor’s two novels ‘<em>This Earth, My Brother…’ </em>and ‘<em>Comes the Voyager at Last’</em>; texts that have been found to be underexplored in terms of systematic studies, in order to determine how sociolinguistic factors impinge on language choice and use, and also enhance comprehension of the texts. Sociolinguistic aspects of age, sex, status and educational attainment were used as the theoretical parameters of determining how characters in the texts used language forms. Findings revealed that the kind of language people use is determined by where and to whom they are engaged with in the interaction(s). Thus, this study affirms that the society/environment one finds oneself impinges on the form or type of language one uses.</p> Copyright (c)