Research Journal in African Languages <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Research Journal in African Languages</strong> is a leading peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research works on/in indigenous African Languages such as Kiswahili, Akan, Hausa, Yoruba, Ewe, Luo, Igbo, Gikuyu. The journal has a mission to make research and knowledge accessible to all; authors, therefore, benefit from high visibility and readership for their work. The journal's broad aims and scope allow researchers to explore interconnected subject areas. Articles in this journal are evaluated on their own scholarly merit and research integrity, and our expert academic editors take an objective and constructive approach to the peer-review process. Research Journal in African Languages is indexed by Google Scholar.</p> Royallite Global en-US Research Journal in African Languages <p>This open-access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.</p> <p><strong>You are free to:</strong> Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. </p> <p><strong>Under the following terms:</strong> Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. </p> <p><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</p> Modes of linguistically classifying verbal bullying expressions used in Kenyan secondary schools <p>This paper examines modes of classifying verbal bullying expressions used in secondary schools in Kenya. The study sought to find out evidence of linguistic expressions used in verbal bullying and the forms they took by using Politeness theory; how the utterances affected the targeted students and especially if they violated the students’ rights on dignity and equal opportunity to quality education despite the child’s background. The study used a mixed methods design, where quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze data. Purposive sampling was used to select the schools. The selected schools were stratified and categorized in two groups, that is mixed and pure girls’ and boys’ schools. Further stratification was done based on the type of school whether it was mixed boarding or mixed day school; boys’ boarding and girls’ boarding schools or whether it was a sub county, county, extra county or national school. Students were selected randomly from each class of school to form the population of the respondents. The students were interviewed to collect data. The collected data was subjected to analysis, findings were interpreted and the outcome presented in narratives. Both positive (accusations/criticisms, expressions of contempt or ridiculing, evaluations, insults, slanders or spreading rumors and challenges) and negative face threatening acts (interruptions or intrusion, reminders and issuing orders) were identified from the data as examples of verbal bullying expressions using Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory. The study established that verbal bullying expressions had great effects on the targeted. Some of the victims felt isolated from their affiliated groups, dejected, devalued, humiliated among others.</p> Dorothy Katunge Mutunga Copyright (c) 2023 Dorothy Katunge Mutunga 2023-01-28 2023-01-28 4 1 Matumizi ya takriri katika uwasilishaji wa mashairi ya Euprase Kezilahabi na Kithaka wa Mberia <p>This paper exploits the use of repetition as stylistic device in the poems of Kezilahabi and Mberia with the intetions of comparison. It comes out clear that some forms of repetition are commonly used by both poets. Repetition as a style assists the artist in the presentation of theme and on the emphasy. Moreover it brings out rhythm in the poetry works. This paper has illustrated broadly on various forms of repetition. Repetition as astyle, has always been used in poetic works. What comes out clear is that even the free verse poetry of Kezilahabi and Mberia exibits this style.&nbsp; Kezilahabi works have some resemblance with the works of Kithaka Wa Mberia on the forms of repetition. It is also clear in this paper that parallelism is an example of repetition. Parallelism in free verse poetry serves a particular perpose.</p> JUMA N. JOB Copyright (c) 2023 JUMA N. JOB 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 4 1