Ushuni as a method of sound production, performance practice and categorisation in the philosophical and intellectual foundation of Umaskandi
Keywords:ingoma, inkulumo, song-dance compound, ushuni, ukusetha, Western Knowledge production
The focus of this article is to demonstrate and explain how employing linguistic apparatus, the epistemological and metaphysical world of omaskandi can be explored and understood. It does so by focusing on ushuni as the method of sound production, performance practice and categorisation method. The focus on ushuni demonstrates that the indigenous African languages Isizulu in particular, which plays a significant role as it dominates the conceptual apparatus beyond its ordinary communicative function, ought to be fundamental in rationalising and theorising about umaskandi. Isizulu language, therefore, should accordingly enable and guarantee access to umaskandi’s profound conceptual levels. The study has assumed the qualitative research paradigm as it offers an in-depth analysis of reality. Primarily, the investigation into the nature of umaskandi was conducted through fieldwork, and equally important was the consideration of the known history of the genre through earlier documentation. This article, therefore, attempts to unpack Isizulu indigenous music-making principles, practices, and contexts in which umaskandi exists. It is envisaged that it will be more beneficial to umaskandi genre, omaskandi and formal music education hence contributing to knowledge production about this musical phenomenon.
Bebe, F. (1975). African Music A People’s Art. London: Harrap.
Davies, N. (1994). The Guitar in Zulu Maskanda Tradition. The World of Music, 36(2), 118–37.
Dei, G. J. S. (2012). Indigenous Anti-Colonial Knowledge as ‘Heritage Knowledge’ for Promoting Black/African Education in Diasporic Contexts. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, 1(1), 102–19.
Dei, G. J. S. (2011). Studying, researching and teaching African indigenous knowledges: Challenges, possibilities and methodological cautions. Graduate Students Seminar, 1-16. Pretoria, UNISA.
Ekwueme, L. E. N. (1975). Guest Editorial. African Music, 5(04), 4–5.
Fasiku, G. (2008). African Philosophy and the Method of Ordinary Language Philosophy. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 2(4), 085–090.
OUP. (2017). IsiZulu Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retrieved from https://zu.oxforddictionaries.com
Kunene, M. (1981). Anthem of the Decades - a Zulu Epic Dedicated to the Women of Africa. London: Heinemann.
Levine, L. (2005). The Drumcafe’s Traditional Music of South Africa. South Africa: Jacana Media (Pty) Ltd.
Mapaya, M. G. (2013). Investigating Mmino Wa Setšo (Indigenous Music) as Practiced by Bahanwana in Limpopo Province, South Africa: Afrocentric and New Musicological Approaches. University of Venda, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Thohoyandou.
Mapaya, M. G. (2014). African Musicology: Towards Defining and Setting Parameters of the Study of the Indigenous African Music. Anthropologist, 18(2), 619–27.
Mapaya, M. G. (2014b). Indigenous Language as a Tool in African Musicology: The Road to Self-Assertiveness. South African Journal of African Languages, 34, 29–34. https://doi.org/10.1080/02572117.2014.896530.
Mapaya, M. G. (2014c). The Study of Indigenous African Music and Lessons from Ordinary Language Philosophy1. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(20), 2007–2014. https//doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n20p2007
Mlamla, N. E., & Shumba, K. (2021). A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Voice of Maskandi on Hostel Killings in KwaMashu, Durban: Implications for Community Safety, Health and Well-Being. African Journal of Development Studies (AJDS), 11(3), 271–92.
Ngema, V. (2007). Symbolism and Implications in the Zulu Dance Forms: Notions of Composition, Performance and Appreciation of Dance among the Zulu. KwaDlangezwa: University of Zululand.
Nketia, K. (1975). The Music of Africa. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd.
Nyembezi, S. (2005). A - Z Isichazimazwi Sanamuhla Nangomuso (Dictionary for Today and the Future). Pietermarizburg: Shuter & Shooter.
Nzewi, M. (2007). A Contemporary Study of Musical Arts: Informed by African Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Pretoria: Centre for Indigenous Instrumental African Music and Dance (Ciimda).
Thesee, G. (2006). Anti-Colonialism and Education: The Politics of Resistance, 52–42 in G. J. Dei (Ed.). AW Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Titus, B. (2021). Hearing the Given and the Made in South African Maskanda Music. The World of Music, 10(2), 79–106.
Xulu, M. K. (1992). The Re-Emergence of Amahubo Song Styles and Ideas in Some Modern Zulu Musical Styles. Durban: University of Natal, Ethnomusicology Thesis.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Mbuti Moloi, Geoff Mapaya
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
This open-access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
No additional restrictions You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.