Visual Adaptation of Gender Violence
Keywords:Gender Violence; Visual Media; Women Safety; Movies
With the development of society, we assume that there will be a reduction in violence against women. However, we are observing a rapid rise in the cases of stalking, eve-teasing, sexual harassment, etc. There are cases of such violence for both gender, but women make up most of the cases when it comes to various forms of harassment. Visual media have been instrumental in shaping society and bringing a significant change in society. However, the depiction of women in the movies has often been biased, objectified, and degrading. Also, often these visual media tend to glorify toxic masculine behavior like stalking, eve-teasing, resulting in people thinking such behavior is normal. This has led to an increased case of violence against women and decreasing safe space for women in the current society. To address the issue of gender-based violence, this paper focuses explicitlyon the impact of violence depicted in visual media and on the general population.
“100 Greatest Performances of the Decade”. YouTube, uploaded by Film Companion, 25 Nov, 2019, www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzXS2Nj7GVQ , visited on: 011/02/2022
Bordon Eleonora and Agnese Pietrobon. “Media and domestic violence: a qualitative analysis of movie synopses” URL:www.ijfs.padovauniversitypress.it/system/files/papers/17_1_16.pdfvisited on: 011/02/2022
Commonwealth Human Right Initiative. “Crime Victimization and Safety Perception” 2015, ISBN: 978-93-81241-31-8 URL: www.humanrightsinitiative.org/download/1461662128Crime%20Victimisation_Soft%20File_distribution.pdf
ConnectUS. 17 Freedom of Speech pros and cons. URL: https://connectusfund.org/17-freedom-of-speech-pros-and-cons
Cuklanz, L. (2000). Rape on prime time. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Custers, K., &Van den Bulck, J. (2013). The cultivation of fear of sexual violence in women: Processes and moderators of the relationship between television and fear. Communication Research, 40, 96-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0093650212440444
Gunter, B. (1987). Poor Reception. Misunderstanding and Forgetting Broadcast News. Hillsdale: Erlbaum
Hall, Stuart. (Ed.) (1997). Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices. Chapter 1: Representation, meaning, and language. London Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage in association with the Open University. pp. 15-64
Henricksen Jessamy. “Representation of Violence against Women in the Mass Media.”URL:www.researchgate.net/publication/325746758_Representations_of_Violence_Against_Women_in_the_Mass_Media
MakkarAnhat. “Is Bollywood romanticizing harassment”? Yale Daily News, Aug-2021, URL: https://yaledailynews.com/sjp/2021/08/28/is-bollywood-romanticizing-harassment/. Accessed on: 12/02/2022
Md Salleh Hassan, Hassan, Bin & Osman, Mohd Nizam &SabaghpourAzarianZoheir. “Effects of Watching Violence Movies on the Attitudes Concerning Aggression among Middle Schoolboys (13-17 years old) at International Schools in Kuala lumpur”. European Journal of Scientific Research (2016) ISSN. 38. 1450-216.
Naraharisetty Rohitha, “Movies Objectify Women but Glorify Men for Sexual Adventures: Madras HC.”Theswaddle, December-2021, URL: https://theswaddle.com/movies-objectify-women-but-glorify-men-for-sexual-adventures-madras-hc/
Orpheus Sen, “The Representation of Stalking, I mean ‘Love’ in Bollywood.”Inbreakthrough, October-2019, URL: https://inbreakthrough.org/stalking-harassment-bollywood/
Poulomi Goswami. “Glorification of Stalking in Bollywood”Mondaq, April-2019 URL: https://www.mondaq.com/india/broadcasting-film-tv-radio/800382/glorification-of-stalking-in-bollywood
Monalisa. “Why the Cbfc’s‘violence against women’ disclaimer for Malayalam films is a futile idea” IMDB, April-2018 URL: https://www.imdb.com/news/ni62024900
Rathore Satyam. “A Critical Overview of Censorship in Indian Cinema in the Light of Role of CBFC,” Bharati Law Review, July – Sept., 2016
Santeiro, Tales & Schumacher, Joice& Souza, Tatiana. “Cinema and Violence against Women: Contribution to the Formation of Clinical Psychologist.”TemasemPsicologia - 2017. 25. 415-426. 10.9788/TP2017.2-01En.
Shetty D Tejaswi. “Glorification of Harassment in Bollywood Movies: Can The Censor Board Undo It?”Academike, URL: https://www.lawctopus.com/academike/harassment-in-bollywood-movies/#_ftn2, date of access: 12/02/2022
Shreya Raman. “One Stalking Case Every 55 Minutes, Cases Still Underreported”. Indiaspend, Februray-2020. URL: www.indiaspend.com/one-stalking-case-every-55-minutes-cases-still-underreported/
Smith Samandha. “Prioritizing Stalking as Popular Culture in Regional Films - A Threat to Woman Status in Resurgent India.” URL: www.researchgate.net/publication/321937239_Prioritizing_Stalking_as_Popular_Culture_in_Regional_Films_-_A_Threat_to_Woman_Status_in_Resurgent_India
THE Cinematography Act, 1952, (5B), No. 37, Acts of Parliament, 1952 (India).
The Hindu, “‘Indian films rank high on sexualization of women” https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/world/indian-films-rank-high-on-sexualisation-of-women/article6439345.ece
The Flag. “Freedom of Speech pros and cons: What both sides think”https://theflag.org/glossary/freedom-of-speech-pros-and-cons-what-both-sides-think/
The Hindustan Times. Bollywood’bad influence’ helps Indian man escape conviction for stalking Aus women, February-2016. URL: https://www.hindustantimes.com/world/bollywood-bad-influence-helps-indian-man-escape-conviction-for-stalking-aus-women/story-iuoSfczLoZKSbPJKkz6NeK.html
UN Women, Facts and figures: Ending violence against women, sourced from: https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending-violence-against-women/facts-and-figures, date: 11/02/2022
UN Women. “Press release: Global film industry perpetuates discrimination against women. UNWomen, September 2014.URL: https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2014/9/geena-davis-study-press-release, accessed on 11/02/2022
“Uncensored.”Youtube, Frame Her Right, URL:www.youtube.com/watch?v=okOkOq3J1zA
USAID, “Frame Her Right” India,February-2018, URL: www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/HTS-India-Profile.pdf
World Health Organisation, Violence against Women Prevalence Estimates, 2018, sourced from:https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/341337/9789240022256-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Deepa Sehrawat
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
This open-access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
No additional restrictions You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.